Simple Garbage Collection Tuning for Rails

Ruby is known for being bad at garbage collection. The truth is that the default GC settings aren't very good for a Rails application so if you run a Rails app you really should do some tuning (this requires either Ruby Enterprise or Ruby 1.9.2). Here's a streamlined process for getting started:

Get a Baseline

Turn on collecting GC stats for New Relic (of course you're using New Relic). You want to know what you're fixing and this will probably show you that about ⅓ of the "Ruby" portion of your app response time is really garbage collection. Just add the following line to your environment.rb file:

GC.enable_stats if defined?(GC) && GC.respond_to?(:enable_stats)

Examine the Heap

Once you've gathered enough data in NewRelic to be able to see a change, you'll want to see what the heap looks like in one of your passenger threads.

sudo gem install gdb.rb

sudo gdb.rb <pid>

ruby objects

You're looking for a section that looks like this:

HEAPS            9
  SLOTS      3061241
  LIVE       1457106 (47.60%)
  FREE       1604135 (52.40%)

We're going to assume that "LIVE" number is representative of how many slots you normally use up. Round that up to something sensible like 1,500,000. Now do the math like this:

RUBY_HEAP_MIN_SLOTS=1800000          # Slots Live + 20%
RUBY_HEAP_FREE_MIN=18000             # 1% of HEAP_MIN_SLOTS
RUBY_HEAP_SLOTS_INCREMENT=144000     # 8% of HEAP_MIN_SLOTS
RUBY_HEAP_SLOTS_GROWTH_FACTOR=1
RUBY_GC_MALLOC_LIMIT=60000000

I know there's no explanation for those last two settings, but I haven't really explained the math behind the other numbers either. This is meant to be a good starting point. Its customized for your app to some degree, but with some assumptions.

Wrap Your Ruby

Now create a wrapper script that sets these variables in the environment before calling ruby. I'm going to assume you put it in /usr/local/bin and call it ruby_tuned. The file should look like this (make sure you adjust for the path to ruby on your system):

#!/bin/bash

export RUBY_HEAP_MIN_SLOTS=1800000
export RUBY_HEAP_FREE_MIN=18000
export RUBY_HEAP_SLOTS_INCREMENT=144000
export RUBY_HEAP_SLOTS_GROWTH_FACTOR=1
export RUBY_GC_MALLOC_LIMIT=60000000

exec "/usr/local/bin/ruby" "$@"

Update Passenger

Have passenger use your ruby_tuned wrapper instead of calling ruby directly by updating passenger.conf (look in /etc/apache2/mods-enabled on Ubuntu). You'll want it to look like this:

PassengerRoot /usr/local/lib/ruby/gems/1.8/gems/passenger-3.0.11
PassengerRuby /usr/local/bin/ruby_tuned

Now restart apache, add the server back into production and check NewRelic to see how you did.

What We Got

The graph above is from New Relic as I rolled the changes out one server at a time. When we applied these changes to our first app we saw:

Where Those Numbers Actually Came From

To understand these settings and what they do checkout:


by Jake Vanderdray